11 October, 2017
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to multiple complex diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Dissecting the epigenomic landscape of normal and disease states has greatly expanded our understanding of the regulation of key players in disease pathogenesis and is thus opening doors to novel therapeutic avenues. The human pancreatic islet is a pivotal micro-organ that maintains global glucose homeostasis. The heterogeneity of the islet impedes meaningful in-depth epigenetic analysis using whole islet tissue, because important marks in one cell type are masked by signals from other cell types. We describe here a detailed protocol for the isolation of highly purified endocrine cell subtypes (beta, alpha, and delta cells) from human cadaveric islets, to perform cell-type-specific epigenomic analysis of histone modifications as well as global gene expression profiling.
Pages: 95-111   doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6518-2_8
14 February, 2017
To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE) in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox)-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD) prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66) in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known targetbinding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.
Pages: 1–9   doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.12.014
Over expression of proteins that alter the intracellular signaling pathways in the cytoplasm of the liver cells forming Mallory-Denk bodies
1 February, 2017
In this study, liver biopsy sections fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin (FFPE) from patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) were used. The results showed that the expression of the SYK protein was up regulated by RNA-seq and real time PCR analyses in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared to controls. The results were supported by using the IHC fluorescent antibody staining intensity morphometric quantitation. Morphometric quantification of fluorescent intensity measurement showed a two fold increase in SYK protein in the cytoplasm of the cells forming MDBs compared to surrounding normal hepatocytes. The expression of AKT1 was also analyzed. AKT1 is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration. The AKT protein was also increased in hepatocyte balloon cells forming MDBs. This observation demonstrates the role of SYK and its subsequent effect on the internal signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT as well as p70S6K, as a potential multifunctional target in protein quality control mechanisms of hepatocytes when ER stress is activated.
Pages: 106-114   doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2017.01.011
1 February, 2017
Aging causes cardiac dysfunction, often leading to heart failure and death. The molecular basis of age-associated changes in cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well-suited to investigate the genetics of cardiac aging. Flies age rapidly over the course of weeks, benefit from many tools to easily manipulate their genome, and their heart has significant genetic and phenotypic similarities to the human heart. Here, we performed a cardiac-specific gene expression study on aging Drosophila and carried out a comparative meta-analysis with published rodent data. Pathway level transcriptome comparisons suggest that age-related, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and alterations in mitochondrial metabolism, protein handling, and contractile functions are conserved between Drosophila and rodent hearts. However, expression of only a few individual genes similarly changed over time between and even within species. We also examined gene expression in single fly hearts and found significant variability as has been reported in rodents. We propose that individuals may arrive at similar cardiac aging phenotypes via dissimilar transcriptional changes, including those in transcription factors and micro-RNAs. Finally, our data suggest the transcription factor Odd-skipped, which is essential for normal heart development, is also a crucial regulator of cardiac aging.
Pages: 82-92   doi: 10.1111/acel.12559
31 January, 2017
Identification of germinal center (GC) B cells is typically reliant on the use of surface activation markers that exhibit a wide range of expression. Here, we identify Ephrin-B1, a ligand for Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, as a specific marker of mature GC B cells. The number of Ephrin-B1(+) GC B cells increases during the course of an immune response with Ephrin-B1(+) GC B cells displaying elevated levels of Bcl6, S1pr2, and Aicda relative to their Ephrin-B1(-) counterparts. We further identified a small proportion of recently dividing, somatically mutated Ephrin-B1(+) GC B cells that have begun to down-regulate Bcl6 and S1pr2 and express markers associated with memory B cells, such as CD38 and EBI2. Transcriptional analysis indicates that these cells are developmentally related to memory B cells, and likely represent a population of GC memory precursor (PreMem) B cells. GC PreMem cells display enhanced survival relative to bulk GC B cells, localize near the edge of the GC, and are predominantly found within the light zone. These findings offer insight into the significant heterogeneity that exists within the GC B cell population and provide tools to further dissect signals regulating the differentiation of GC B cells.